My speaking schedule

Below you’ll find a list of my upcoming and past lectures, including Grand Rounds, Plenaries, Keynotes, and invited university and community lectures. They’re in reverse chronological order. To find out how to invite me to speak, click here.

March 21-23, 2018, Ryan Bioethicist-in-Residence at the Southern Illinois University School of Law and School of Medicine.

February 27, 2017, Visiting Professor in Bioethics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh/Magee Women's Hospital.

January 24-25, 2018, Northwestern University, "Sex and Censorship at Northwestern and Beyond: What Does It Mean for LGBTQ Research and Life?"

November 21, 2017, Maastricht University (The Netherlands)

November 20, 2017, Keynote, Night of Descartes, Descartes Centre and Studium Generale, University of Utrecht (The Netherlands).

November 10, 2017: Elizabeth Paris Memorial Lecture for Socially Engaged History and Philosophy of Science, History of Science Society, Toronto. Read more.

October 27, 2017: Speaking on founding/publishing East Lansing Info at the LION Publishers annual meeting.

October 13, 2017: Keynote for the Wilson Centre Research Day, University of Toronto.

October 6, 2017: Keynote for The FIRE Faculty Conference, Dallas, Texas.

June 26, 2017: Keynote for the Communication, Medicine, and Ethics (COMET) conference, Indiana University - Purdue University at Indianapolis.

May 20, 2017: Keynote on Science, Technology, and Social Justice for Values in Medicine, Science, and Technology Conference at the University of Texas, Dallas. Read more.

February 17, 2017: Academic Freedom and University Branding (A Cautionary Tale), Michigan State University.

October 26, 2016: Keynote for Intersex Awareness Day, California State University - Northridge. Read more.

October 6, 2016: Knight Science Journalism Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Read more.

October 5, 2016: Falmouth Historical Society. Read more.

October 4, 2016: Olin College of Engineering. Read more.

September 22-23, 2016: Henry King Stanford Distinguished Professorship in the Humanities, University of Miami. Read more and listen to the podcast recordings.

September 20, 2016: Augustana College. Read more.

September 13, 2016: Humanities Lecture Series, Kansas University. More info.

July 15, 2016: Keynote lecture, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) Student Network Conference, Philadelphia. Watch the video.

June 10, 2016: Keynote lecture, Bessensap, the annual meeting of the Dutch National Research Council with the Dutch Science Journalists Federation, in Amsterdam. More info.

May 26, 2016: Keynote lecture, Canadian Bioethics Society, annual meeting in Toronto. More info.

May 18, 2016: New York Academy of Medicine, The Liliana Sauter Lecture. More info.

May 17, 2016: NYC-NOW, "Sex in the City: A Conversation on Sex and Pleasure." More info.

April 15, 2016: Plenary lecture, Society for Sex Therapy and Research, annual meeting in Chicago, Illinois, The Risks and Benefits to Sex Research in America Today. Hear the audio recording.

April 9, 2016: Keynote for Reproductive Ethics: New Challenges and Conversations, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, "Prenatal Dexamethasone for CAH: The Story that Never Should Have Been." More info.

April 7, 2016: Pauline Newman Distinguished Lecture in Science, Technology, and Society, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York. More info.

March 25, 2016: Shattuck St. Mary School, Honors Science Program, Minnesota.

March 23, 2016: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, Galileo's Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science. More info.

March 11, 2016: Keynote, graduate student conference in History and Philosophy of Science, Indiana University, Bloomington (the program in which I earned my M.A. and Ph.D.). More info.

March 11, 2016: Bloomington Sex Salon, associated with the Center for Sexual Health Promotion of Indiana University. More info.

March 4, 2016: University of Wisconsin-Madison. More info.

March 3, 2016: University of Wisconsin-Waukesha, Bob and Sue Andrews LGBTQ+ Lecture & Discussion Series. More info.

March 2, 2016: Alverno College. More info.

February 24, 2016: Ninth Annual Korenman Lecture at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. More info.

February 18, 2016, Loyola University, Chicago, Celebrazioni Galileiane (On the Occasion of the 400th Anniversary of the Intervention of Card. Bellarmine and the Injunction by the Roman Inquisition). More info.

February 17, 2016, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, for the Coogan Endowment for Excellence in the HIstory of Science. More info.

February 9, 2016, Kenyon College, Ohio. More info.

November 20, 2015: History of Science Society, annual meeting in San Francisco, California, "Historians of Science in the Public Sphere," with Naomi Oreskes, Jane Maienschein, Robert Proctor, and Joshua Howe.

November 10, 2015: Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, Who Should Count as a Woman on the Playing Field? The Question of Intersex and Trans in Sports. More info.

November 6, 2015: Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. More Info.

October 21, 2015: Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Why the Pursuit of Evidence Is the Most Important Moral Pursuit of Our Time. More info.

October 17, 2015: Uncharted: The Berkeley Festival of Ideas. Berkeley, California. More info.

October 1, 2015: Barnes & Nobel, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, Galileo's Middle Finger. More info.

September 30, 2015: Bookends & Beginnings, Evanston, Illinois, Heretics and Activists, Sex and Censorship. More info.

September 25, 2015: Keynote, Information Exchange, Omaha, Nebraska. More info.

September 24, 2015: University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Galileo’s Middle Finger: Why Social Progress Depends on the Protection of Academic Freedom. More info.

September 23, 2015: University of Nebraska, Omaha, Galileo’s Middle Finger: Why Social Progress Depends on the Protection of Academic Freedom. More info.

September 19, 2015: Holden Memorial Address for Distinguished Science Journalism, International Society of Intelligence Research (annual meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico), "Understanding Science Journalists and Why They Misunderstand You." Watch videotape.

September 17, 2015: Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Galileo's Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science. More info.

June 7, 2015: State Sex Ed Summit, Washington, DC.

May 28, 2015: Human Behavior and Evolution Society, annual meeting, University of Missouri, A Tour Up Shit's Creek, and How to Build Yourself a Paddle (about Galileo's Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science).

May 11, 2015: Seminary Co-Co Bookstore, University of Chicago, Galileo's Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science, in dialogue with Kristi Kirschner, MD.

April 28, 2015: NYU School of Medicine, "Good Causes, Bad Acts: Scrutinizing Ends and Means in Medical Activism."

March 28, 2015: University of California at Davis Medical School, Improving OUTComes 2015: Patient-Centered Care for LGBTQI Patients and Families, "Reasons to Add and Not to Add 'I' to LGBTQ in Medicine."

February 20, 2015: Fay Horton Sawyler Philosophy Lecture in Science, Technology, and Society, Illinois Institute of Technology, "Why Not Engineer Normality in Children?"

January 29, 2015: Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, "(How) Do Black Lives Matter in Medicine? A Historical Perspective."

January 15, 2015: Medical Humanities and Bioethics Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, "Ambivalent 'I': What's Right and Wrong about Adding 'Intersex' to LGBTQ in Medicine?"

January 8, 2015: Medical Humanities and Bioethics Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, "Who Should Count as a Woman on the Playing Field? The Question of Intersex and Trans in Sports"

October 23, 2014: Michigan State University College of Human Medicine/Sparrow Hospital, grand rounds in Family Medicine, "Sex, Gender, and Sexuality: Oh My!"

October 18, 2014: New York Academy of Medicine, "Fascinomas," as part of the Vesalius 500 celebration

September 19, 2014: Syracuse University, Disability Studies Program, "Why Not Change Minds Instead of Bodies? When Medicine Goes Too Far in Pursuit of 'Normality'"

September 18, 2014: SUNY Cortland, "Who Should Count as a Woman on the Playing Field? The Question of Intersex and Trans in Sports"

May 9, 2014: American Association for the History of Medicine (annual meeting, Chicago), joint presentation with Susan Reverby: "When Good People Do Bad Things: Can istory Intervene?"

March 26, 2014: Missouri State University, Women’s History Month: When Research meets Politics: Controversies over Fetal Hormonal Engineering Aimed at Female Sex ‘Normalization.’

March 6, 2014: Medical Humanities & Bioethics Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine: Doctor Who: Medicine as a Means to Identity.

December 5, 2013: Yale University School of Medicine, grand rounds in Pediatric Ethics. Surgical ‘Normalization’ for Children Born with Atypical Genitalia: Controversies, Consensuses, and the Constant Cultural Conundrum.

September 24, 2013: University of California at Davis, School of Medicine. What Is Intersex Identity, and What Does It Mean to Healthcare Professionals?

May 30, 2013: Surgical ‘Normalization’ for Children Born with Atypical Genitalia: Controversies, Consensuses, and the Constant Cultural Condundrum. The David Green Memorial Lecture, Division of Medical Ethics and Humanities, University of Utah School of Medicine.

April 26, 2013: Ethical and Scientific Problems with the Use of Prenatal Dexamethasone for CAH. Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, Weehaken, New Jersey.

April 10, 2013: “Medical Activism and Sexual ‘Normalcy,’” Wayne State University (Detroit).

February 12, 2013: Management of the Newborn Child with Ambiguous Genitalia: How to Support Families in the Long Term. Webinar for the March of Dimes.

January 31, 2013: Leading the retreat of the Ethics Committee of Northwestern Memorial Hospital.

January 24, 2013: When Will Doctors Stop Messing with Pregnant Women, and Start Experimenting on Them? Medical Humanities and Bioethics Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.

December 7, 2012: The Problem of Doing a History of the Present: Trying to Track the Off-Label Use of Prenatal Dexamethasone for Fetal Sex Normalization. Invited lecture at Indiana University, Department of History and Philosophy of science, as part of a symposium celebrating the 80th birthday of Fred Churchill (my dissertation advisor).

December 3, 2012: Trying to ‘Choose’ Our Children’s Sexual Orientations: Missteps, Misunderstandings, and the Marketplace of Motherhood. Invited lecture at Michigan State University, Department of Psychology, as part of the Whom You Love lecture series on the biology of sexual orientation.

November 29, 2012: Why Not Change Minds Instead of Bodies? When Medicine Goes Too Far in Pursuit of Normality, invited lecture at Miami University (Cincinnati).

November 17, 2012: Tragedy Plus Time Equals History, contributed paper in a session called “Comedy, Seriously” (on the use of comedy in the history of science) at the joint meeting of the History of Science Society and Philosophy of Science Association, San Diego.

November 13, 2012: Prenatal Dexamethasone for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: As Told in Six Short Acts, invited lecture in the Feminist Science series at the University of Michigan, with Anne Lyerly of the University of North Carolina.

October 3, 2012: The Care of Children with Ambiguous Genitalia, University of Utah Children’s Hospital.

October 2, 2012: The Vern and Bonnie Bullough Lecture in the History of Sex and Gender. Where Hermaphrodites Came from, and Where They Went, at the University of Utah, Department of History.

May 11, 2012: Invited lecture, National Association of Perinatal Social Workers, Management of the Child with Ambiguous Genitalia: The Critical (But Often Missing) Role of the Social Worker, Little Rock.

May 3, 2012 : Panel discussion on clinical research ethics (related to The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks), with Carl Elliott, Michael Oldani, Richard Silverman, and Jane Winter, Northwestern University, Evanston.

April 16, 2012: Open panel discussion related to a workshop on feminist approaches to sex research, organized with Sari van Anders of the University of Michigan at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.

April 9, 2012: Invited lecture, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, History of Medicine interest group, The History of the Medical Treatment of Homosexuality.

March 30, 2012: Invited symposium on transgender rights, Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, Harvard Law School, Cambridge

March 10, 2012: Invited lecture, American Medical Student Association, Why Not Change Minds Instead of Bodies?, Houston.

February 2, 2012: Noontime MHB lecture series, Eve Ensler, Hands Off My Vag! A Philippic, with Pictures, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.

November 11, 2011: Grand Rounds, Pediatric Surgery/Ethics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, The Ethical Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: Where Are We, Five Years after ‘the Chicago Consensus”?.

November 2, 2011: Contributed work-in-progress, Health and Society Working Group of the Institute for the Humanities, University of Illinois at Chicago, Ethical Problems with a Fetal Intervention Aimed at Preventing Ambiguous Genitalia, and Sometimes Also Tomboys and Lesbians.

October 22, 2011: Invited lecture, Hypospadias and Epispadias Association, Illinois, Where I’ve Been, What I’ve Seen, Where I’m Going.

August 11, 2011: International Academy of Sex Research, Ethical Issues in the Use of Prenatal Dexamethasone for CAH (invited debate with Heino Meyer-Bahlburg), UCLA, Los Angeles.

April 12, 2011: Canadian Center for Ethics in Sport, colloquium on Fostering Fair, Safe, and Rewarding Environments for Transgendered and Intersexed Athletes in Sport.

March 29, 2011: Invited lecture, with Ellen Feder of American University, Should We Be Afraid of Big Clitorises, or How They’re Treated? Problems in Law, Medicine, Ethics, and Society around Girls Born with ‘Ambiguous Genitalia,’ Michigan State University College of Law, co-sponsored by Philosophy and the Center for Ethics an Humanities in the Life Sciences.

February 18, 2011: The Lawrence Badash Memorial Distinguished Lecture, Galileo’s Middle Finger: Struggles of Science and Identity Politics in the Internet Age, University of California, Santa Barbara, co-sponsored by History, Feminist Studies, and Anthropology.

December 15, 2010: TEDx lecture, Democracy after Anatomy, Northwestern University (Evanston).

December 9, 2010: Grand Rounds, When Medicine Goes Too Far in Pursuit of Normality, York Hospital.

December 8, 2010: Invited lecture, Conjoined Twins, Little Penises, and Other Border Crises in Medicine: How Doctors Try to Manage Babies with Socially-Challenging Bodies, York College of Pennsylvania,.

November 19, 2010: Roundtable participant, What Roles Do Advocacy and Science Play in Evolutionary Anthropology? (organized by Wesley Allen-Arave) Evolutionary Anthropology Society/American Anthropological Association, New Orleans.

November 14, 2010: Invited lecture, The Intersex Body, Chicago Humanities Festival, Harold Washington Library, Chicago.

Keynote address, Medicine Gone Too Far in Pursuit of Normality: Why We Need the Social Work Perspective (Desperately), Society for Social Work Leadership in Healthcare, Tampa, Florida, November 5, 2010.

October 28, 2010: Keynote address, Making Disability Work, annual conference of the Alliance of State Employees with Disabilities (Michigan).

October 24, 2010: Late-Breaking News Session, on prenatal dexamethasone for CAH, Social Emergencies and Social Justice: What to Do When We Discover an Unethical Practice?, with Ellen K. Feder of American University and Carl Elliott of the University of Minnesota, American Society for Bioethics + Humanities, San Diego, California.

October 6, 2010: The Brownlee Lecture in Sexuality Studies, Alice Paul Center for Research on Women, Gender, and Sexuality, University of Pennsylvania (co-sponsored by the Center for Bioethics and the Department of History and Sociology of Science).

September 23, 2010: Invited for panel of distinguished alumni, conference on Integrated History and Philosophy of Science, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Indiana University, Bloomington.

July 31, 2010: Keynote address, Why Orchids Bloom, annual meeting of the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Nashville, Tennessee.

July 30, 2010: Invited lecture, Perspectives on DSDs, with Anne Tamar-Mattis, J.D., of Advocates for Informed Choice, and Katrina Karkazis, Ph.D., of Stanford University, annual meeting of the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Nashville, Tennessee,.

April 5-28. 2010: Cornell College, Presidential Fellowship. (Taught “What Is Sexual Orientation” and gave two lectures for the Dimensions Program.)

MHB Lecture Series: my chosen theme this year was “Managing our Natures.” The series consisted of:

  1. •The Missing Ethical Principle: Following the Evidence (March 11, 2010)
  2. •Rats and Other Humans: Why Medicine Needs More Chocolate Chips (March 4, 2010)
  3. •The Sport of Sex: Competing with the Gender Divide in Athletics (February 24, 2010)

Contributed session (session organizer), “A Critical History of the Darkness in El Dorado Controversy,” American Anthropological Association, with invited responses from Thomas Gregor and Terence Turner, Philadelphia, December 2, 2009.

Invited lecture, “Galileo’s Middle Finger: Science and Identity Politics in the Internet Age,” Klopsteg lecture series of the Science in Human Culture Program, Northwestern University, October 5, 2009.

Chair and Commentator on a panel on “The Intersections of Intersex,” panel organized by Elizabeth Reis and including Ellen Feder, Thea Hillman, Morgan Holmes, Iain Morland, at a conference on “Medical Anthropology at the Intersections” (An International conference of the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association), Yale University, September 25, 2009.

Grand Rounds, “Conjoined Twins in History, Ethics, and Everyday Life,” University of Chicago Comer Children’s Hospital, August 27, 2009.

Symposium, “Darwin’s Dangerous Critics: Evolutionary Biology and Identity Politics in the Internet Age,” with responses by J. Michael Bailey, Napoleon Chagnon, Craig Palmer, and Randy Thornhill,” at the Human Biology and Evolution Society meeting, California State University at Fullerton, May 30, 2009.

Contributed panel, spring conference of the American Society for Bioethics + Humanities, “Taking the History, and Giving It Back,” with MK Czerwiec and Todd Hochberg at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, April 24, 2009.

Invited lecture, Duke University, “Boys in Pretty Dresses, Girls with Big Clitorises, and Foreskins as Altars: (How) Should We Make Sexual Choices for Children?”, April 15, 2009.

Invited lecture, University of Richmond, “Sex and Social Justice: Three Cases Concerning Children,”co-sponsored by Sociology, Anthropology, Biology, History, Psychology, Philosophy, and the Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies Program, March 18, 2009.

Invited lecture, University of Richmond, “Some Good Things to Consider as You Face the Rest of Your Life (gulp),” for Sociology majors, March 18, 2009.

Invited lecture, Cultural Dynamics in Medicine (first year M.D. course), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, “What Is Medicine for?”, March 12, 2009.

Invited lecture for an alumni lecture series on social justice, The College at Old Westbury (my alma mater), “Sex and Social Justice: Three Cases Involving Children,” March 3, 2009.

Workshop on care for intersex and trans clients, Howard Brown Health Center, February 25, 2009.

Invited lecture for the institute for Women’s Health Research, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, “What Makes a Woman? Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation, Teased Apart,” December 16, 2008.

Grand Rounds in Urology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, “Disorders of Sex Development: What Do We Really Know?,” November 20, 2008.

Invited lecture, ethics committees of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and Arkansas Children’s Hospital, “Chasing Normal, Forgetting Health: How to Think Anew about Funny-Looking Tots, Short Kids, and Boys in Dresses,” November 14, 2008.

Invited lecture, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, “Sex and Social Justice: Three Cases Involving Children,” November 13, 2008.

Invited works-in-progress discussion, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, “Science and Identity Politics in the Internet Age,” November 13, 2008.

Panel discussion with Gretchen Case, Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, Debjani Mukherjee, and Erik Parens, “The Future of Disability Studies in Medical Ethics and Medical Humanities,” American Society for Bioethics + Humanities, Cleveland, October 23-26, 2008.

Invited lecture, conference of the Fraser Health Ethics Service, British Columbia, “Chasing Normal: The Politics of Science, Medicine, and Anatomy in the Health of the Population,” September 22, 2008.

Campus lecture to coincide with “one book” reading (The Girls, by Lori Lansens), Westminster College, “Fiction and Non-Fiction, Conjoined: Stories from Real and Imagined Lives,” September 17, 2008.

Invited lecture, Chicago Society for the History of Medicine and the Humanities, Hektoen Institute of Medicine, “The Role of Doctors in the Past, Present, and Future of Normal,” September 9, 2008.

Contributed paper, “Activism in the Bailey Transsexualism Controversy Compared to Intersex Patients’ Rights Activism,” National Women’s Studies Association conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 21, 2008.

Invited lecture, “What Is Medicine for?” to the Psychiatry Residents, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, June 4, 2008.

Distinguished lectureship (C.P. Snow Scholar), “Body Modification and the Future of Normal,” Ithaca College, April 8, 2008.

Invited lecture, “Doctors, Democracy, and the Future of Normal: What the Medicalizations of Small Penises and Small Breasts Have in Common,” Cambridge Interdisciplinary Reproduction Forum, University of Cambridge, April 1, 2008.

Invited lecture, “"What are Little Boys Made of? Standards for Penis Length and Neonatal Sex Reassignment,” Standards Workshop, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University, March 26, 2008.

Invited lecture, “Intersex in Theory, Life, and Practice,” Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan, March 25, 2008.

Special lecture, “What Are Doctors for?”, Medical Humanities and Bioethics Masters Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, February 21, 2008.

Keynote, “Why Phallometers Worked, and Evidence Didn’t: Philosophical Aspects of the Intersex Rights Movement,” at the ninth annual Graduate Philosophy Conference, Michigan State University, February 16, 2008.

Special lecture, “What Is Sex for?”, Medical Humanities and Bioethics Masters Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, February 14, 2008.

Special lecture, “What Is Birth for?”, Medical Humanities and Bioethics Masters Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, February 7, 2008.

Grand Rounds in Interdisciplinary Medicine, “What Is Medicine for?,” Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, January 18, 2008.

Panel participant, “History for the Future: A Personal Account of Using History to Change the Medical Treatment of Intersex,” American Historical Association annual meeting, Washington, D.C., January 4, 2008.

Invited, lecture, “Intersex, Conjoined Twinning, and Other Feats of Normality: What Happens to Children Born with Norm-Challenging Bodies,” Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, November 29, 2007.

Invited lecture, “How I’ve Been Completely Inappropriate with my HPS Ph.D. (And So Can You!),” History and Philosophy of Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, November 13, 2007.

Invited lecture, with Aron Sousa, “What Is Medicine for?,” Indiana University School of Medicine, Bloomington, November 12, 2007.

Invited lecture, “No Matter How You Slice It? Parsing Intersex,” The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Bloomington, November 12, 2007.

Grand Rounds in Bioethics, “Should We Attenuate the Growth of Children with Disabilities? Thinking about Ashley in Broader Contexts,” with Hilde Lindemann, University of Michigan, October 31, 2007.

Invited lecture, “History for the People: The Rewards, Risks, and Politics of Doing Client-Centered Medical Histories,” Programs in the History of Medicine and History of Science, Yale University, October 15, 2007.

Invited lecture, “Measuring Phalluses, Separating Twins, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Today’s Creeping Norms,” Dimensions Program (Center for Science and Culture of Healthcare), Cornell College,October 4, 2007.

Keynote, “The Cost of Medicalizing Disability,” Annual Conference of the Michigan State Alliance of Disabled Employees, State Library of Michigan, Lansing, September 19, 2007.

Invited lecture/discussion on anomalous stillbirths and their effects on mothers with the ob/gyn residents, Northwestern University, Chicago (and simulcast to Evanston), August 24, 2007.

Plenary lecture, “Life among the Phall-O-Meters: An Insider’s Critical History of the Intersex Rights Movement,” International Academy of Sex Research, Vancouver, August 8, 2007.

Invited lecture, “When Sex Research Turns into Political Controversy: Some Lessons from the Past,” University of Lethbridge, July 26, 2007.

Specialty Panel, “Patient-Centered Care for Disorders of Sex Development,” with Janet Green, moderated by Susan Albrecht, national meeting of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses, Orlando, Florida (AWHOHN), June 27, 2007.

Exhibit Keynote, “Jarring Bodies: Thoughts on the Display of People with Unusual Bodies,” Kresge Art Museum exhibit on circus sideshow banners, Michigan State University, June 6, 2007.

Specialty Panel, special conference on growth attenuation in children with severe disabilities (based on the “Ashley” case), University of Washington School of Law (Seattle), May 16, 2007.

Lawson Wilkins Lecture (keynote), “Ethical and Historical Considerations in Treating Children with Disorders of Sex Development and Idiopathic Short Stature,” Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, May 5, 2007.

Plenary Address, “Where Monty Python Meets Health Ethics: Are We Doing the Right Stuff?”, Conference on Thinking Differently: Challenging the Boundaries of Health Ethics, Provincial Health Ethics Network, Red Deer, Alberta, May 4, 2007.

Keynote, LBGT Pride Week, “Intersex: Anatomy, Identity, and the Future of Normal,” Brown University, Providence, April 24, 2007.

Panel discussant on “normalizing” genital surgeries, American Philosophical Association Central Division and Society for Analytic Feminism, Chicago, April 18, 2007.

University lecture on “Changing Sex and Changing Medicine” and book signing, Women and Gender Studies Program, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, April 12-13, 2007.

Seminar, “Should We Try to Make Healthy Children Normal?”, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Center for Society and Genetics, March 15, 2007.

Distinguished Speaker Series, “Should We Try to Make Healthy Children Sexually Normal?”, California State University at Northridge, Center for Sex and Gender Research, March 14, 2007.

Invited lecture on intersex for LBGT Health Week, College of Human Medicine of Michigan State University, March 12, 2007.

Invited lecture, “Doctors and the Future of Normal: What Intersex and Botox Cosmetics Have in Common,” Bioethics Interest Group, University of Illinois College of Medicine, February 16, 2007.

Roundtable on teaching disability, organized by Julia Grant, American Historical Association annual meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, January 6, 2007.

Seminar, “Should We Try to Make Healthy Children Normal?”, University of Illinois at Chicago, January 12, 2007.

Presentation to the Psychosomatic Medicine Interest Group, “The Social Nature of Disease,” Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, November 15, 2006.

Seminar, “Should We Try to Make Healthy Children Normal?” Health Prevention Interest Group, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, November 6, 2006.

Presentation to the Disability & Rehabilitation Ethics Affinity Group, American Society for Bioethics and Humanities annual meeting, Denver, Colorado, October 27, 2006. Topic: “The Role of Doctors (and Ethicists) in the Future of Normal.”

Faculty seminar, “The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” Utica College, New York, September 12, 2006.

All-Campus Lecture, “‘Something Is Actually Happening’: Should Academics Do Something about It?”, Hamilton College, New York, September 12, 2006.

Seminar, “The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” Hamilton College, New York, September 11, 2006.

Lecture, “The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” Colgate University, New York, September 11, 2006.

Seminar, “Getting the Best Medical Care for Your Daughter,” parents’ group, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Bloomington, Indiana, August 6, 2006.

Seminar, “Getting Beyond Shame to Get the Best Medical Care for Yourself,” adults’ group, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Bloomington, Indiana, August 5, 2006.

Keynote for LBGT Awareness Month, “Why Changing Sex Is Easier than Changing Medicine: An Insider’s History of Intersex Medical Reform” National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division, Bethesda, Maryland, June 22, 2006.

Guest lecture, “One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal,” Garrison Lecture Series, the Hastings Center, Garrison, New York, May 19, 2006.

Public discussion with Erik Parens and filmmaker Lisa Hedley of Lisa’s acclaimed HBO documentary, Dwarfs: Not a Fairy Tale, at the Center for Religious Inquiry, St. Bartholomew’s Church (Park and 51st), New York, May 18, 2006.

Moderator for “Imagining and Imaging the Disabled Self,” a panel of artists from Bodies of Work, the Chicago Festival of Disability Arts & Culture, including Mat Fraser, Laura Ferguson, Sunny Taylor, and Tim Lowly, Chicago Cultural Center, April 29, 2006.

Guest lecture, “The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, April 11, 2006.

Keynote for Disability Awareness Week, “Do Funny-Looking Genitals Make You Disabled?,” Ferris State University, Michigan, March 30, 2006.

LBGT Health Week Lecture on Intersex, Colleges of Human Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, March 29, 2006.

Grand Rounds in Pediatric Ethics, University of Wisconsin Hospital, March 23, 2006, with Jane Goto, Director of Community Relations for the Intersex Society of North America. “New Guidelines for the Management of Disorders of Sex Development in Childhood.” (Presentation of two new handbooks.)

Brittingham Endowed Visiting Professorship, University of Wisconsin, March 22, 2006. Lecture in History and Women’s Studies: “Measuring Phalluses, Separating Twins, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Today’s Creeping Norms.”

Brittingham Endowed Visiting Professorship, University of Wisconsin, March 21, 2006. LBGT Studies “brown bag”: “Activism in Academia: Is ‘Thinker-Doer’ an Oxymoron, or a Moral Imperative?”

Ethics Seminar lecture, American Medical Association, “The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” January 20, 2006.

Panel on Intersex for the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School’s annual Sex Week, January 3, 2006.

“The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal,” Grand Rounds, Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychology, Buffalo Children’s Hospital and University of Buffalo School of Medicine, December 2, 2005.

“Conjoined Twins, Intersex, and the Future of Normal,” Muhlenberg College Center for Ethics series on The Ethics and Politics of Identity, November 7-9, 2005.

“Clinical Guidelines on the Management of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation in Childhood,” with Jane Goto (Director of Community Relations, ISNA), Seattle Children’s Hospital, October 24, 2005.

“Measuring Phalluses, Gendering Babies, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Treating Intersex Today,” Grand Rounds, Dept. of Psychiatry, St. Louis University, October 4, 2005.

“Changing Patients, Changing Doctors,” Medical Humanities Seminar for residents in OB/GYN, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, July 29, 2005.

“History for the Future: Scenes from the Life of a Scholar-Activist,”plenary session on “Biology, Biology Studies, and Activism,” International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology, Guelph, Ontario, July 16, 2005.

“The Future of Normal…and Our Role in It,” Unitarian Universalist Church of Muncie, Indiana, July 10, 2005.

“Why Intersex is a Human Rights Issue,” Physicians for Human Rights, Michigan State University, June 7, 2005.

“Intersex, Conjoined Twins, and Other Feats of Normality,” California State University East Bay, May 19, 2005.

“Living on the Nature-Nurture Divide: Stories from People Born Intersex,” Michigan State University, April 22, 2005.

“One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal,” the Priestley Endowed Lecture, University of Lethbridge (Alberta, Canada), March 10, 2005.

“Intersex in Theory, Life, and Practice,” University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, January 27, 2005.

Plenary panel on intersex at “Sex Week” of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey, January 5, 2005.

“Freeing the Irish Giant: Anatomy Museums and the Future of Normal,” Medical Humanities Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, November 5, 2004.

“The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal: Lessons from Intersex,” Loyola University, Stritch School of Medicine, November 4, 2004.

“Intersex in Theory, Life, and Practice,” Michigan Mensa, September 18, 2004.

Expert testimony to the San Francisco Human Rights Commission investigation into the medical treatment of people with intersex conditions, July 30, 2004.

“The Role of Doctors in the Future of Normal: The Uses and Abuses of Medicine in Re-Shaping Persons,” Medical Ethics for the 21st Century, Advanced Course on Disability, Michigan State University, June 26, 2004.

“The Role of Doctors in the Future of Medicine,” Internal Medicine Grand Rounds, Ingham Regional Medical Center, June 22, 2004.

“Horror Pictures: The Medicalization of Disability,” plenary panel at the opening of The Visible Skeleton Series exhibition at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Washington, D.C., June 12, 2004.

“The Role of Doctors in the Future of Medicine: Towards a Political Philosophy of Medicine,” keynote at a conference on “Building a Philosophy of Medicine,” University of Alabama, Birmingham, May 14, 2004.

“Measuring Phalluses, Gendering Babies, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Handling Intersex Today,” Program in Science and Technology Studies, University of Michigan, April 5, 2004.

“Intersex: Where Things Stand,” in-service brown bag for the LBGT Resource Center at the University of Michigan, April 2, 2004.

“One of Us: The Truth about Conjoined Twins,” Sunday Discussion Series, University Lutheran Church, East Lansing, February 22, 2004.

“Measuring Phalluses, Gendering Babies, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Handling Intersex Today,” Dept. of Philosophy, Furman University, February 13, 2004.

“Freeing the Irish Giant: Why Anatomy Museums Should Consider Bringing Out Their Dead,” banquet lecture at the Midwest History of Science Junto, Minneapolis, April 5, 2003.

“Facing History: Understanding Craniofacial Treatment in a Broader Historical Context,” keynote at the annual meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Meeting, Chicago, March 20, 2004.

“Bringing History to Bioethics,” in a session on the usefulness of cultural studies to bioethics, American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Montreal, October 24, 2003.

“Intersex, Conjoined Twins, and the Future of Normal,” Dept. of History, Rutgers University, October 9, 2003.

“Living with Intersex,” for the Southern Indiana branch of PFLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays), Unitarian-Universalist Church, Columbus, Indiana, November 9, 2003.

Participant in a panel discussion on “What Makes Us Human? The Meaning of Life,” for the One-Book-One-Community discussion of Frankenstein, East Lansing Public Library, October 2, 2003.

“The Once and Future Freak: What the History of the Medical and Social Treatment of People with Unusual Anatomies Might Tell Us about the Future of Transhumanism,” Transhumanist Visions conference, Yale University, June 28, 2003.

“Intersex in Modern Medicine,” for Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine’s Diversity Education Series, June 12, 2003.

“The Historical Arc of Intersex Treatment,” Intersex Ethics Symposium, American Pediatric Surgical Association annual meeting, Fort Lauderdale, May 25, 2003.

“Measuring Phalluses, Gendering Babies, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Handling Intersex Today,” University of Minnesota Program in the History of Science and Technology, April 4, 2003.

“Anatomy, Identity, and the Future of Normal,” Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program Advisory Meeting, Toronto, March 8, 2003.

“Intersex in Theory, Practice, and Life,” Sarah Lawrence College, February 26, 2003.

“One of Us: Conjoined Twinning and the Anatomical Basis of Identity,” Women’s Studies’ Program, Emory University, February 12, 2003.

“Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Intersex,” for Michigan State University’s Prism and Spectrum (LBGT alliances), January 22, 2003.

“Measuring Phalluses, Gendering Babies, and Speaking to the Dead: What History Tells Us about Handling Intersex Today,” New York Academy of Medicine, December 10, 2002.

“Intersex: History, Ethics, Practice,” Pediatrics Grand Rounds, Hartford Children’s Hospital, December 3, 2002.

“Intersex in Theory, Practice, and Life,” Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, December 3, 2002.

Participant in a panel discussion on disability and eugenics, annual meeting of the Michigan Association of Centers for Independent Living, November 14, 2002.

“Parental Shame: Why Normalizing Surgeries Rarely ‘Fix’ Intersex,” Hastings Center (New York) working group on Surgically Shaping Children, September 23, 2002.

“Why Not Use Medicine to Solve Social Problems?,” Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences, Michigan State University, September 10, 2002.

“The Uncertainties of Intersex,” sub plenary presentation, European Association for the Study of Science and Technology, University of York, August 2, 2002.

“Intersex 101,” at the request of student activists attending the National Student Leadership Conference of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered student leaders, March 16, 2002 (on the campus of Michigan State University).

“One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Connections between Anatomy and Identity,” Indiana University, March 1, 2002.

“The Persistence of Intersex,” keynote at a conference entitled “The Persistence of Gender,” the Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, February 8, 2002.

“How Academic Feminism Delayed the Intersex Rights Movement…and How to Avoid This Kind of Problem in the Future,” Center for Advanced Feminist Studies, University of Minnesota, January 28, 2002.

“The Politics of ‘Evidence’ in the Intersex Treatment Controversy,” in a panel on “Evidence-Based Medicine: The Tyranny and the Promise,” at the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, October 25, 2001, Nashville.

“Sex/Change: Technology and Transformation of Gender,” Medical Education panel discussion with Deirdre McCloskey and Jacob Hale, University of Illinois at Chicago, October 17, 2001.

“What Would It Mean to Think of Conjoined Twins as Individuals? Ethical Problems in the Management of Conjoined Twinning,” International Twin Congress, July 7, 2001, London, England (by invitation).

“Ethical and Historical Support for a Patient-Centered Approach to Intersex,” colloquium for the intersex clinical management team at the University of Michigan, April 12, 2001.

Presentation to College of Nursing Curriculum Committee, University of Michigan, on incorporating intersex into the curriculum, March 28, 2001.

“Operating on the Body Politic: The Non-Surgical Face of Intersex,” core address at the Wellcome Trust for the History of Medicine’s conference on The History of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, London, England, February 16, 2001.

“The Historian’s View,” in a session entitled “Does the Study of History Affect Clinical Practice? Intersex as a Case Study,” with additional papers by pediatric endocrinologist Jorge Daaboul, “The Clinician’s View,” and scholar-activist Cheryl Chase, “The Patient-Advocate’s View,” at the annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, May 19, 2000 (contributed paper and session organizer; my paper was sent as a video presentation because I was due to give birth in early June).

“Better Medicine Through History: Hermaphrodites and Doctors, Past, Present, and Future,” keynote lecture of the John Shaw Billings History of Medicine Society, Indiana Medical History Museum, Indianapolis, April 20, 2000.

“Thoughts on the Display of Unusual Anatomies,” Medical Humanities Program, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, April 20, 2000.

“Why Women Do (But Can’t) Have Testicles, Why Men Do (But Can’t) Have Vaginas: Intersex in Medicine, Life, and Love,” in honor of Gender Week, University of Michigan, March 28, 2000.

“Love with a Ruler: Phallometers and the Surgical Treatment of Intersexuality,” at the annual meeting of the Society for the Social Studies of Science, San Diego, California, October 29, 1999.

“Freeing the Irish Giant: The Ownership of Unusual Bodies in Science, Medicine, and Art,” California State University at Northridge, October 20, 1999.

“‘Dang It, Jim, I’m a Historian, Not a Doctor!’ Liberating History in the Intersex Rights Movement,” at the annual Great Lakes History Conference, Grand Valley State University, September 25, 1999.

“The Politics of Being (Enhanced),” at the summer meeting of the Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity Working Group, Montreal, Canada, July 21, 1999.

“Why You Can’t Understand Intersexuality without Understanding Its History,” in a symposium entitled “Aspects of Intersexuality,” organized and chaired by Milton Diamond at the annual meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, SUNY Stony Brook, June 25, 1999.

“The Meaning of Testicles in a Woman,” at the 11th Annual Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, University of Rochester, June 5, 1999.

“Lost to Follow-Up: The Past and Future of Intersexuality,” Speaker Series of the Medical Humanities Program, Loyola University Chicago, April 20, 1999.

“Intersex in Theory, Practice, and Life,” presentation with Cheryl Chase at the Illinois School for Professional Psychology, April 20, 1999.

“Changing Intersex Treatment,” presentation with Cheryl Chase to the Pediatric Endocrinology team of Chicago Memorial Children’s Hospital, April 19, 1999.

Respondent to a lecture by Paul Thompson on cloning as part of the “Science and Religion” series sponsored by the University Lutheran Church and the Templeton Foundation, at Michigan State University, April 11, 1999 (by invitation).

“Standards for Penis Length in Newborns,” as part of a series on scientific and industrial standards organized by Larry Busch, Sociology Department of Michigan State University, February 2, 1999.

“Social Constructivism as Carrot, Stick, Therapy, and Guide: An Insider’s Observations on the Intersex Rights Movement,” at the joint annual meeting of the History of Science Society and the Philosophy of Science Association, Kansas City, October 23, 1998. (I was also the session organizer and chair for this session, entitled “Unusual Anatomies and the Politics of Agency.”)

“The Unbearable Likeness of Being: Individualism and Enhancement Technologies,” with Carl Elliot and Tod Chambers, at the annual meeting of the Canadian Bioethics Society, Toronto, October 16, 1998.

“Love with a Ruler: A Primer on Intersex,” in celebration of National Coming Out Day, sponsored by the Michigan State University Alliance of Lesbian, Bi, Gay, and Transgendered Students, October 6, 1998.

“Jarring Bodies: On the Public and Private Exhibition of Unusual Anatomies,” colloquium series of the Department of Science and Technologies Studies, Virginia Tech, September 30, 1998.

“Jarring Bodies: On the Public and Private Exhibition of Unusual Anatomies,” at the annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine, Toronto, May 9, 1998.

“A Conversation about Intersexuality,” with Bruce Wilson, M.D. (pediatric endocrinologist of MSU), as part of the Women’s Studies Colloquium Series, Michigan State University, April 11, 1998.

“Jarring Bodies: On the Ownership of Unusual Anatomies,” Cabinet of Natural History Speaker Series of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Cambridge University (England), March 9, 1998.

“Facing Difference: On the Treatment of Cleft Palate,” at a meeting of the Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity Working Group at University College London, March 4, 1998.

“Listening to Hermaphrodites: Historical and Ethical Problems in the Medical Treatment of Intersexuality,” joint meeting of the American Association of Bioethics, the Society for Bioethics Consultation, and the Society for Health and Human Values, Baltimore, November 7, 1997 (contributed paper/workshop with Cheryl Chase).

“Intersexuals (Hermaphrodites) in Theory, Practice, and Life,” The Women’s Studies Program Colloquium at Michigan State University, October 22, 1997.

“Intersexuality in Theory, Practice, and Life,” at a meeting of the Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity Working Group at McGill University, September 12, 1997.

“Casting a Fine Net: Darwin’s and Churchill’s Problems with Case Studies,” at a session in honor of Fred Churchill of Indiana University at the bi-annual meeting of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology, held at the University of Washington (Seattle), July 19, 1997.

“Anatomy and Identity, or the Politics of Being Unusual,” as part of an interdisciplinary conference entitled “On The Meaning of Being Human” at the University of Indianapolis, May 9, 1997.

“Things in Jars: On the Private and Public Exhibition of Peculiar Anatomies,” at the annual meeting of the Society for Interdisciplinary Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of California at Berkeley, April 4, 1997.

“Listening to Hermaphrodites: Ethical Challenges to the Medical Treatment of Intersexuality,” Works-in-Progress Series of the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences, Michigan State University, March 25, 1997.

“The Limits of Individuality: Medical Doctors, Hermaphrodites, Surgeons, and Conjoined Twins,” Colloquium Series of the Department of History and Sociology of Science and Technology of the University of Pennsylvania, November 4, 1996

“The Limits of Individuality: A Critical Historical Survey of the Western Biomedical Treatment of ‘Siamese’ (Conjoined) Twins,” at the International Meeting for the History of Science (jointly sponsored by several national history of science societies), Edinburgh, July, 1996.

“When Theories Meet Bodies Meet Lives: Creating Sex and Gender in a World of Hermaphrodites,” University of Minnesota, sponsored by the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Program Office and the Department of English, May 15, 1996.

“‘But My Good Woman, You Are a Man!’ A Historical and Ethical Analysis of the Biomedical Treatment of Human Hermaphroditism,” for the Sarah D. Wangensteen Memorial Lecture Series of the Owen H. Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine Bio-Medical Library, University of Minnesota, April 15, 1996.

“‘But My Good Woman, You Are a Man!’ Medical Men, Hermaphrodites, and the Anatomy of Politics at the Fin-de-Siecle,” Department of the History of Science, University of California at Berkeley, March 4, 1996.

“‘But My Good Woman, You Are a Man!’ Medical Men, Hermaphrodites, and the Anatomy of Politics at the Fin-de-Siecle,” Stanford University, March 1, 1996.

“Hermaphrodites, Intersexes, Bearded Women, Medical Men, Identities, Anatomies, Sex, Politics, Laparotomies, Nosology, and Little Penises,” Interdisciplinary Colloquium Series, Gustavus Adolphus College, November 28, 1995.

“Body Parts and Bodies Whole: Some Thoughts on the Commonalties of Hermaphrodites, ‘Siamese’ Twins, and ‘Gay Genes’,” colloquium Series of the Program in the History of Science and Technology, University of Minnesota, October 20, 1995.

“Metaphors, Morality, and the Genome,” at “Controlling Our Destinies,” an Interdisciplinary Conference on Historical, Philosophical, Scientific, and Ethical Aspects of the Human Genome Project, University of Notre Dame, October 7, 1995.

“‘But My Good Woman, You Are a Man!’ The Doubtful Encounters of Hermaphrodites and Medical Men in Late-Nineteenth-Century France and England,” at the annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, Pittsburgh, May 11, 1995.

“Collected Tips for Surviving the Dissertation Process, or How to Graduate and Still Keep Your Friends, Lovers, and Sanity,” presented with Judy Hammett at the annual meeting of Mephistos (the National Graduate Student Conference for the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science, Medicine, and Technology), April 1, 1995.

“Hermaphrodites Through the Looking Glass,” annual conference of the Science and Literature Society, New Orleans, November 12, 1994.

“The Threat of the Hermaphrodite: The ‘Problem’ of Sexual Ambiguity in Nineteenth-Century France and England,” at the annual meeting of the History of Science Society, New Orleans, October 16, 1994.

“Metaphors of the Genome,” University of Notre Dame Liberal Studies’ Speakers Series, November 30, 1993.

“Ruminations of a Fence Sitter: C. P. Snow’s Two Cultures Revisited,” at a conference entitled “Violent Desire and Desiring Violence: An Interdisciplinary Conference at Indiana University,” Bloomington, April 2, 1993.

“The Human Genome Project as Truth, Justice, and the American Way,” at a conference entitled “Science in a National Context: Style and Substance,” Indiana University, Bloomington, March 27, 1993.